Monday, May 16, 2011

what is competency mapping?

what is competency mapping? Discuss the process of competency mapping and explain how it is carried out in your organisation or an organisation you are familiar with. Briefly describe the organisation you are referring to.

Ans. Several methods and techniques of appraisal are available for measurement of the performance of an employee. The methods and scales differ for obvious reasons. First, they differ in the sources of traits or qualities to be appraised. The qualities may differ because of differences in job requirements, statistical requirements and the opinions of the management. Second, they because of the different kinds of workers who are being rated, viz., factory workers, executives or salesmen. Third, the variations may be caused by the degree of precision attempted in an evaluation. Finally, they may differ because of the methods used to obtain weighting for various traits.
Rock and Lewis have classified the methods into two broad categories, viz., the narrow interpretation and broad interpretation of appraisal. The former is considered as “a post-mortem of a subordinate’s performance by his superior during a pre-determined period of time, often, the preceding year. It involves assessment of performance vis-à-vis such as the traits or characteristics’ rating scale, the ranking method, the employee comparison method and performance standard method are included under this category.
The wide ly used categorization is that given by Strauss and Sayles. They have classified performance appraisal methods into traditional, and newer or modern methods. The traditional methods lay emphasis on the rating of the individual’s personality traits, such as initiative, dependability, drive, responsibility, creativity, integrity, leadership potential, intelligence, judgement, organising ability, etc. On the other hand, newer methods place more emphasis on the evaluation of work results – job achievements – than on personality traits. Results oriented appraisals tend to be more objective and worthwhile, especially for counseling and development purposes.
a) Straight Ranking Method
b) Man-to-man Comparison Method
c) Grading
d) Graphic Rating Scales
e) Forced Choice Description Method
f) Forced Distribution Method
g) Check Lists
h) Free From Essay Method
i) Critical Incidents
j) Group Appraisal
k) Field Review Method
a) Assessment Centre
b) Appraisal by Results or Management by Objectives
c) Human Asset Accounting Method
d) Behaviourly Anchored Rating Scales
Straight Ranking Methods
It is the oldest and simplest method of performance appraisal, by which the man and his performance are considered as an entity by the rater. No attempt is made to fractionalize the rate or his performance; the “whole man” is compared with the “whole man”; that is the ranking of a man in a work group is done against that of another. The relative position of each man is tested in terms of his numerical rank. It may also be done by ranking a person on his job performance against that of another member of a competitive group by placing him as number one or two or three in total group, i.e., persons are tested in order of merit and placed in a simple grouping.
Paired Comparison Technique
By this technique, each employee is compared every trait with all the other persons in pairs one at a time. With this technique, judgement is easier and simpler than with the ordinary ranking method. The number of times each individual is compared with another is tallied on a piece of paper. These numbers yield the rank order of the entire group.
Man-to-man Comparison Method
This technique was used by the USA army during the First World War. By this method, certain factors are selected for the purpose of analysis and a scale is designed by the rater for each factor. A scale of man is also created for each selected factor. The each man to be rated is compared with the man in the scale, and certain scores for each factor are awarded to him. In other words, instead of comparing a “whole man” to a “whole man,” personnel are compared to the key man in respect of one factor at a time.
Grading Method
Under this system, the rater considers certain features and marks them accordingly to a scale. Certain categories of worth are first established and carefully defined. The selected features maybe analytical ability, co-operativeness, dependability, self-expression, job knowledge, judgement, leadership and organising ability, etc.
Graphic or Linear rating Scale
This is the most commonly used method of performance appraisal. Under it, a printed form, one for each person to be rated. According to Jucius, these factors are; employee characteristics and employee contribution. In employee characteristics are included such qualities as initiative leadership, co-operativeness, dependability, industry, attitude, enthusiasm, loyalty, creative ability, decisiveness, analytical ability, emotional ability, and co-ordination. In the employee contribution are included the quantity and quality of work, the responsibility assumed, specific goals achieved, regularity of attendance, leadership offered, attitude towards superiors ad associates, versatility, etc.
Forced Choice Description Method
This method was evolved after a great deal of research conducted for the military services during World War II. It attempts to correct a rater’s tendency to give consistently high or consistently low ratings to all the employees. The use of this method calls for objective reporting and minimum subjective judgement. Under this method, the rating elements are several sets of pair phrases or adjectives relating to job proficiency or personal qualifications. The rater is asked to indicate which of the four phrases is most and least descriptive of the employee.
Forced Distribution Method
This method was evolved by Joseph Tiffin after statistical work. This system is used to eliminate or minimize raters’ bias, so that all personnel may not be placed at the higher end or at the lower end of the scale. It requires the rater to appraise an employee according to a pre-determined distribution scale. Under this system, it is performance and promo ability.

1 comment:

  1. I wanted to say thanks to you for those wonderful tips and hints you are showing on this site.
    Competency Mapping


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