Sunday, May 15, 2011

Define and identify the process of job analysis.

Define and identify the process of job analysis. Consider
yourself as a job analyst and describe how you would perform the
process of job analysis, with reference to your organisation or an
organisation you are familiar with.

You are as a Job Analyst
As a job analyst, you are going to study the jobs, which are found
within organisations. Hence, you should have a good capture of the
nature and functions of modern organisations. You should be able to
study the interaction among cultural," technological , and behavioral
variables that shape jobs and their outcomes within organisational
situations. Usually, you would be required to do this at a very short
As an analyst, you would need to relate to persons at all levels, from
the assembly line operator to the senior professionals. In order to be
able to gather data and interpret them systematically, you should
have the knowledge of the existing data collection methods and
statistical tools.
Collection of Information
A various methods are available to you for meeting job information.
This method was historically linked to the concept of job analysis
was observation
Supplemented but the interview. In recent years, questionnaires,
diaries, self-reports by employees and check-lists have been
experimented with different degrees of success.

Scope of Job Analysis
It is important to decide the scope of job analysis in your own
The first aspect of this task is to decide as to which jobs are to be
included in the analysis. Given the standpoint we have taken here,
all jobs should be added and regularly examined. At the manual or
unskilled worker's level, the job analysis consists of a simple
description of actions taken in order to complete the job analysis.
But, as one moves up in the hierarchy of the organisation, and as the
complexity of the job increases, you job cases to be self-explanatory.
For example, his place in the organisation and the implications of
his wqrk and its effects on Gthers, both alongside, above and below
his work and its effects on others, both alongside, above and below
his are not self-evident. All the requires to be clearly put down. At a
managerial or higher level, the issues become more complex and
hence the need for job analysis is definitely greater.
A second and perhaps more complex aspect of this task is to decide
the types of information to be gathered by you as a job analyst. As
very past practiced, job analysis has focused on the formal, the
rational and the prescribed behaviors and outcomes. Your own
experience as a manager would corroborate the fact that work gets
done through a dynamic process of interaction between formal and
informal behaviors, customs, norms and practices. Moreover, the
actual results obtained may not always conform to official plans and
i) Observation
By observing the actual working situation, you should describe the
routines, procedures or approaches used by the jobholder, proofing of
the input, processing and the output involving relationships with
other individuals or departments will reveal overlaps and gray areas. To collect data by the method of observation, you will need to develop a special kind of ability to identify paths of activity and the purposes for which they have been provided.
Using the method of observation, you should take the help of a check-list which should contain the following items- job title, number of people involved, the input of work, its source and its form, the process for relating between routine and occasional tasks, points of decisions and considerations available, responsibility for and to others, lines of communication and reasons for using them, equipment and facilities available and their utilization, the output of work, its form, destination and standards.
Observation has discovered, are a very time consuming method, and perhaps that is its greatest handicap, ii) Interviewing To know the full effort of a job you, as a job analyst, will find it
necessary to interview job holders, and to check the findings with their superiors. Through the interview you should aim to obtain all
the relevant facts about the job.
You should take special care to cover the following areas-
* The title of the job holder
* The title of the jobholder's superior
* The job titles and numbers of staff reporting to the jobholder (This information can best be recorded by means of an
organisation chart.)
* A brief description of the overall role or purpose of a job
The main tasks or duties that the jobholder has to carry out. It
should be a short description of the responsibilities under broas
heading. In the long run, accountability which is the main factor in
an analysis stems from the broad field If responsibility.
To achieve tibe maximum, the following guidelines will help you as a
job analyst
* Work out *a logical sequence of questions which will help the
interviewer to arrange his thoughts about the job.
* Pin people down on what they actually do. Answers to questions
are often vague and information is given by means of untypical
* Ensure that the jobholder is not allowed to get away with vauge
or inflated descriptions of his work. He will know that the interview
is a part of the job evaluation exercise.
* Sort out the actual facts and information form the irrelevant
* Obtain a clear statement form the jobholder about his authority
to make decisions and the amount of guidance he receives form his
* Avoiding leading questions which make the expected answer
* Allow the job holder ample opportunity to talk by creating an
atmosphere of trust and confidence.
iii) Questionnaire
This method is desirable especially in two situations.
First, where several people are doing the same type of job and to
interview them all may be impracticable, but it may be necessary to
seek different interpretations or confirmations which can be
accomplished by asking different people the same question in
writing. Second, it may be desirable to explore special aspects of a
task more carefully with enough time to think or then respond in
Sources of Information
Various sources are available to call out the correct and complete
information on jobs.
i) Director or Departmental Head
He will be more concerned with the total situation than the elements
in it. A picture of the total situation is, however, very desirable and
you should have this in mind when framing your questions and your
approach to the detailed investigation. In situations for example,
where delegation is either misunderstood or rejected, opportunities
to introduce and discuss it can be developed.
The departmental head concerned may find it necessary to analyse
his own job before he can discuss the total situation. In the process
some surprising information may be revealed.
Nevertheless, situations which are thought to be organiseed and
controlled will soon be exposed if they are not, and the unintentional
by-product of the exercise will be worthwhile.
ii) The Supervisor
The supervisor who is also a member of the management team is
closer to the mechanics of jobs and systems than the line manager. It
is reasonable to expect him to know what the people in his section
are doing. To involve the supervisor in seeking information about
jobs will be a real help to both himself and you as an analyst in
precisely understanding what is being done and how it is being done.
iii) The Job-Holder
The person doing the job is the most important source of information
about the job. However, it will be extremely important for you to
establish understanding and appreciation of the reasons for
undertaking the exercise of job analysis.
The amount of information to be gained form a cooperative employee
is tremendous and he will often reveal things that were never
previously known, problem areas that never rise to the surface and human relationships that cannot be allowed to develop or continue
to exist. Very often you may be surprised to find how little
! resemblance there is between the job as it is being done and how
they think it is being done, iv) The Leaving Interview
This is a much-neglected source of information. It is a situation full of promise as a fact revealer and should be treated as an opportunity not to be missed. If handled properly, you can learn a great deal form a person leaving the job. His views about what a job is, what is going on, what are the personal relationships, what is the workers' view of the management and what sort of improvement would be useful to improve and clarify jobs would be very useful to you.

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