Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Explain the process of job design.

Explain the process of job design. Discuss different functions related to recruitment, selection and out sourcing in your organization or any organization you are familiar with. Describe the organization you are referring to.

Ans. Job analysis is a detailed and systematic study of jobs to know the nature and characteristics of people to be employed for each job. It is a process of discovering and indentifying the pertinent information relating to the mature of a specific job. It is the determination of the tasks which comprise the job and of the skills, knowledge, abilities and attitudes required of the worker for successful performance of the job. The process of job analysis is essentially one of data collection and then analysing that data. It provides the analyst with basic data pertaining to specific jobs in terms of duties, responsibilities, skills, knowledge, degree of risk, etc. The emphasis in job analysis is upon determining the principal duties of a job, the nature and level of skills and aptitudes required to perform these duties, the relation of the job to other jobs in the organization, responsibilities involved, and working conditions. Its purpose is to describe and define the distinctions among various hobs. Considerable emphasis is placed upon an accurate listing of the human characteristics-physical and mental skills, personality traits and son on needed to adequately perform the job. This will facilitate the process of job evaluation which is concerned with determining the relative worth of various jobs.

Process of job analysis :-

There are eight major steps in a job analysis programme :-
1. Organise and plan for the programme. The company must determine who will be incharge of the programme and must assign responsibilities to the designated persons. A schedule should be established and a budget estimated for carrying out analysis of jobs.
2. Obtain current job design information. The job analyst should next obtain organization charts, current position descriptions and job specifications, procedure manuals, and systems flow charts as are available.
3. Conduct “needs research”. The job analyst should investigate to determine which organization, managers, or staff people required job analysis or output from job analysis. The analyst should also determine for what purpose and to what extent jobs must be analysed and how the information will be used.
4. Establish priorities in the jobs to be analysed. The personnel department, working with managers of the various organizational units should indentify the jobs to be analysed and the priority of each job analysis.
5. Collect job data, collect data about the selected jobs as they are currently being performed using established systematic techniques.
6. Redesign the jobs, if necessary.
7. Prepare job descriptions and job classification. Job information collect must be processed to prepare the job descriptions. This is a written statement which describes the main features of the job along with duties, location and degree of risk involved.

8. Developing job specifications. This step involves conversion of the job descriptions in terms of human qualifications, traits of temperament, physical and psychological attributes required for successful performance of the job.


1. Works Simplifications

In work simplification, the complete job is broken down into small sub ports, usually consisting of few operations. This is done so that employees can do these jobs without much specialised training. Many small jobs can also be performed simultaneously so that the complete operation can be done more quickly. Time and motion studies are often used for work simplification.

2. Job Rotation

Job Rotation refers to the practice of shifting people from one job to another within a work group so that there is some varieties and relief from the boredom of routine. Herzberge characterised this approach age merely substituting “one zero for another zero” as it implies horizontal or lateral transfer to job of the same level and status.

Job Rotation means lateral transfer. Horizontal rotation may take place in course of a development programme whereby the employee spends two or three months in one activity and is then moved on to another. Job rotation may also be on a situational basis i.e. by moving the person to another activity when the first is no longer challenging to him, or to meet the needs of work scheduling.

3. Job Enlargement

Job enlargement means assignment of varied tasks or duties of the jobs of employees all the same level. The additional tasks or duties do not require new skills but can eperforme3d with similar skills and efforts as before. In this case, there is enlargement in the horizontal dimension and it may be the monotonous job remains monotonous only on a larger scale than before. Herzberg, a pioneer in job design, has characterised job enlargement has simply “adding zero to zero” meaning that one set of boring tasks (zero) is simply added to another set of boring tasks (zero).

4. Job Enrichment

Job Enrichment implies increasing the contents of a job or the deliberate upgrading of responsibility, scope and challenge in work. Job enrichment is a motivational technique which emphasises the needs for challenging and interesting work. It leads to a vertically enhanced job by adding functions from other organizational levels, making it contain more variety and challenge and offer autonomy and pride to the job holder.


Sando Bank is a foreign bank and has a far reaching international network with 95 outlets in 29 countries in the US, Europe, Asia and Oceania. It is ranked No. 1 in tense of profits earned and No. 2 in tense of assets, Worldwide. The Indian branch at New Delhi was set up in Dec 1990. Rather than merely coping with the challengers presented by the liberalisation, the bank in principle believes that it must go beyond and pave the way for continued growth in the years that follow. To realise its aim of being “The global leader in Universal Banking” in the first approaching 21st century, it is determined to seize the opportunities for further growth and development that changes in the operating environment present, by expanding the scope of its business activities and upgrading the quality of its services.


1. Responsibility for recruitment in Sando bank

In a small organization, recruitment is usually done rather informally by the owner or manager. But in a large organization like Sando Bank, human resource development is usually responsible for developing sources of applicants. Within the human resource department, there is likely to be an employment office to do the recruiting and even initial selection of candidates for a job. Big organizations employing large number of professional and managerial employees, may gave a separate department engaged entirely in recruiting. At the same time, individual managers and employees may be referring promising applicants to the personnel department. Similarly, the human resource department may be requesting recruitment assistance from the managers as may be the case when campus recruitment is proposed at the alma mater of one of the managers. Still other firms prefer to put together recruiting teams consisting of human resource specialist s and other executives.

Requisition for Recruitment : -

Recruitment is an on-going process, where by the firm attempts to develop a pool of qualified applicants for future human resource needs even though specific vacancies do not currently exist. This practice is also necessary to maintain contacts with sources of recruitment.


1. Selection involves a series of steps by which the candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for vacant posts. The process of selection leads to employment of persons who possess the ability and qualifications to perform the jobs which have fallen vacant in an organization. It is the candidates for employment into two categories, namely, those who will be offered employment and those who will not be called rejection since more candidates may be turned away than employed. That is why, selection is frequently described as a negative process in contrast with the positive nature of recruitment. This [process is followed in Sando Bank.


1. The procedure of selection will vary from organization to organization and even from department to department within the same organization according to the kinds of the jobs to be filled. The number of steps in the procedure and the sequence of steps also carries.
For instance, some organizations do not hold preliminary interview, test or screening, whereas in other organizations such as commercial banks, preliminary tests are given to eliminate a large numbers of applicants. The main steps could be incorporates in the selections procedure are as under in Sando Bank : -

Preliminary Interview Employment Interview
Receiving Applications Physical Examinations
Screening of applications Checking references
Employment test Final selection


1. Direct Recruitment
2. Casual callers or unsolicited applications
3. Media Advertisement
4. Employment agencies
5. Management Consultants
6. Recommendations

1. We can describe these sources as follows : -

Direct recruitment

In Sando Bank, direct recruitment is used by placing a notice on notice board specifying the details of job available. It uses this method to fill vacancies for unskilled workers or trainees.

Casual Callers or Unsolicited Applications

This method is used less in Sando Bank. The company maintaining pending application folders for various jobs and use them whenever required.

Media Advertisement

Advertisement in newspapers or trade and professional journals is used by Sando bank when qualified and experienced professional are not available from other sources. Most of the senior positions in bank are filled by this method.

Employment Agencies

Employment exchanges run by the Government are regarded as a good source of recruitment for unskilled, semi-skilled and professional jobs. This method is also used by the bank where it contacts employment agencies.

Management Consultants

Management consultancy firms help organizations to recruit technical, professional and managerial personnel. They specialise in middle level and top level executive placements. Sando Bank has recruited several employees by the help of folders maintained by management consultants.

Sando Bank many times prefer that their won employees should recommend the persons. Many employers prefer to take such recommended persons because something about their background is known.


  1. well detailed research and cheers for good analysis of the items.

  2. Thanks for the information however am wondering are the above steps or process for Job analysis or Job design .some clarification am confused , according to me the process is for Job Analysis and would like to be guided on the process for Job (re)designing .thank you .


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