Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Explain the importance and the process of job Analysis.

Explain the importance and the process of job Analysis. Describe the methods of job analysis being practiced in an organization you are familiar with. Briefly describe the organization you are referring to.

Answer. Job analysis involves developing a detailed description of the tasks involved in a job, determining the relationship of a given job to the other jobs, and ascertaining the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for an employee to successfully perform his job. It is essentially a process of collecting and analyzing data relating to job.

The scope and process of Job Analysis includes the following:
1. Collection and recording job information
2. Checking the job information for accuracy
3. Writing job descriptions based on the information
4. Using the information to determine the skills, abilities and knowledge that are required on the job
5. Updating the information from time to time.

The process of Job analysis is

depicted in the following figure:

Methods of Job Analysis
Interview Methods
Unstructured Interviews: Here the interview is a conversation with no prepared questions or predetermined line of investigation. However, the interviewer should explain:
• the purpose of the study is and
• the particular focus of this interview
The roles and the purposes give structure. The interviewer generally uses a questioning strategy to explore the work the job holder performs. Listening and taking notes are very important. These enable follow up questions to be posed. The questions and responses - with summaries enable the interview to be controlled. The conversation takes on a structure with areas being considered, explored, related to each other and revisited to secure the depth of information required in job analysis.

An unstructured interview involves question and response and may be free flowing but it becomes structured in the sense that the interviewer has a purpose and needs skill to
• establish a relationship
• ask well-structured questions to generate a conversational flow in which the interviewee offers information - factual, opinion, subjective and objective about aspects of the job
• to ensure information received is heard and understood - listening, clarifying and reflective summarising

Structured Interviews: A structured interview may assume a definite format involving:
• charting a job-holder's sequence of activities in performance
• an inventory or questionnaire may be used

A structured interview may be akin to a staff appraisal or job evaluation interview carried out by a manager with a subordinate. The manager is the analyst.

Direct Observation of incumbents performing their jobs enables the trained job analyst to obtain first-hand knowledge and information about the job being analyzed.

The Observation method of Job Analysis is suited for jobs in which the work behaviors are 1) observable involving some degree of movement on the part of the incumbent, or 2) job tasks are short in duration allowing for many observations to be made in a short period of time or a significant part of the job can be observed in a

hort period of time, or 3) jobs in which the job analyst can learn information about the job through observation. Jobs in which the Observation method is successful include:
• Machine Operator/Adjuster
• Construction Worker
• Police Officer/Patrol Officer
• Flight Attendant
• Bus Driver
• Housekeeper/Janitor
• Skilled Crafts Worker

Questionnaire: There are two types of questionnaires: The structured questionnaire uses a standardized list of work activities, called a task inventory, that job incumbents or supervisors may identify as related to the job. In addition, the respondent may also identify additional information such as how much time is spent on the task, the amount of supervision required, and/or the expertise required. The open-ended questionnaire asks the job incumbent to describe the work in his or her own words.

Critical incident technique: The critical incident technique involves observation and recording of examples of particularly effective or ineffective behaviors. Behaviors are judged to be "effective" or "ineffective" in terms of results produced by the behavior.

The following information should be recorded for each "critical incident" of behavior: (1) what led up to the incident and the situation in which it occurred; (2) exactly what the employee did that was particularly effective or ineffective; (3) the perceived consequences or results of the behavior; and (4) a judgment as to the degree of control an employee had over the results his or her behavior produced (to what degree should the employee be held responsible for what resulted?).

The critical incident method differs from direct observation and work methods analysis in that observations of behavior are not recorded as the behavior occurs, but only after the behavior has been judged to be either particularly effective or ineffective in terms of results produced. This means that a person using the critical incident method must describe a behavior in retrospect, or after the fact, rather than as the activity unfolds. Accurate recording of past observations is more difficult than recording the behaviors as they occur.

Work methods analysis: A sophisticated observation method, work methods analysis is used to describe manual and repetitive production jobs, such as factory or assembly-line jobs. These methods are used by industrial engineers to determine standard rates of production which are used to set pay rates. Two types of work methods analysis are time and motion study and micro-motion analysis. In time and motion studies, an industrial engineer observes and records each activity of a worker, using a stopwatch to note the time it takes to perform separate elements of the job. Micro-motion analysis uses a movie camera to record worker activities. Films are analyzed to discover acceptable ways of accomplishing tasks and to set standards relating to how long certain tasks should take. Such data are especially useful for developing training programs and setting pay rates.

Diary: The job incumbent records activities and tasks in a log as they are performed.

Checklist: A worker or supervisor check items on a standardized task inventory that apply to the job. Checklists may be custom-made or purchased from an outside vendor.

Technical Conference: Several experts (often called "subject matter experts") on the job collaborate to provide information about the work performed. A job analyst facilitates the process and prepares the job description based on the consensus of the technical experts.

I am familiar with department of labour. Job analyst uses observation and interview methods to gather information about an employee. Information is organized into 3 categories
• Data
• People
• Things

The categories refer to how data is processed or used by the employee, to whom the employee speaks or interacts with, and what tasks are actually handled, respectively.

Work Functions
Data People Things
0. Synthesizing 0. Mentoring 0. Setting up
Coordinating 1. Negotiating 1. Precision work
Analyzing 2. Instructing 2. Operating
Compiling 3. Supervision 3. Driving
Computing 4. Diverting 4. Manipulating
Copying 5. Persuading 5. Tending
Comparing 6. Speaking 6. Feeding
7. Serving 7. Handling
8. Helping

Each job is coded using an aspect from each column.

Job titles are listed in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles Each job is given a code. Ex. A recruiter might be assigned the code 2, 6, 7 if the job entails analyzing data (2), speaking to people (6), and handling different things (7) See previous table.

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