Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Discuss the methods of determining training needs.

Discuss the methods of determining training needs. Discuss how it is
in your organization or an organization which you are familiar with, Describe the organization you are referring to.

Training is important not only from the point of view of the organization, but also for the employees. Training is valuable to the employees because it will give them greater job security and an opportunity for advancement. A skill acquired through training is an asset for the organization and the employee. It can be taken away only by the complete elimination of the need for that skill because of technological changes.
1. Identification of Training Needs:-
The technological changes taking place is the main cause of identification
of the training needs in an organization. Earlier the people were acquiring training trough apprenticeship and vocational courses, which are not sufficient in the modern era of industrialization. It is necessary to identify the training needs because of the following reasons:-
(a) Adoption of new techniques in an organization and introduction of modern working methods. For example, computerization of the office as has been done in Railway booking or Airlines bookings.
(b) Poor performance by the workers as reflected by low output, lack of initiative, incompetence, bad decisions. This requires systematic training of the work force.
(c) Wide gaps between what workers should be doing and what they are doing.

(d) Analysis of the strengths and weakness of an organization may reveal the areas of weakness which need to be handled seriously.
Training needs can be identified through the following types of analysis:
(i) Organizational analysis:-
It is a systematic study of the organization in terms of its objectives, its resources, resources allocation and utilization, growth potential and its environment. Its purposes is to determine where training emphasis should be placed in the organization for increasing organizational effectiveness. Organizational analysis involves the following elements:-
(a) Analysis of Objectives:-
The long-term and short-term objectives and their relative priorities should be properly analyzed. Specific goals for various departments should be stated which will serve as means for achieving the overall organizational objectives. The management would have to examine what are specific training inputs that would contribute towards the achievements of these objectives.
(b) Resources Utilization Analysis:-
The allocation of human and physical resources and their efficient utilization in meeting the operational targets should be analyzed. In order to examine the need fro training the questions need to be answered.
Whether adequate number of personnel are available to ensure the fulfillment of the goals?
Whether the personnel performance is up to the required standards?
(c) Climate Analysis:-
Organizational climate reflects the attitudes of organizational members

as regards trust, loyalty, openness, commitment to organizational goals. Analysis of organizational climate should aim at determining whether the environment in different departments is conducive to fulfillment of their goals. This will help in knowing areas where training is needed to improve the climate of the organization.
(ii) Task Analysis:-
It is a systematic analysis of jobs to identify job contents knowledge, skills and aptitudes required to perform the job. Particular attention should be paid to the tasks to be performed, the methods to be used, the way employees learn these methods and the performance standards required of employees. Questionnaires, interviews, personnel records, observation and other methods can be used to collect information about jobs in the organization.
(iii) Manpower Analysis:-
The quality of manpower required by the organization has to be carefully analyzed. It has to be done in the light of both internal and external environment of the organization. The economic, social, technological and
political environment of the organization should be properly scanned to determine the quality of human resources desired. To achieve these quality standards, specific training needs should be determined on the following lines:-
(a) specific areas where individuals need training.
(b) the capability of present workforce to learn new skills and behaviors.
(c) the time frame with in which training must be imparted, and
(d) job designing and redesigning introduction of new york work methods and technology

Vesta, a consumer non-durable company, based at Delhi, has a turnover of about Rs 500 Crores.
Training and development needs of the employees of the company are directly related to the product profile. Emphasis on training is primarily to increase the effectiveness of the organization. Training becomes necessary for the company to maintain morale internally as well as t adopt itself to the external environment.
Need for Training:-
There are both theoretical & practical requirements for training. Studies conducted at Harvard University have shown that employees can retain their jobs by working at a mere 20-30 percent of their potential Research has also shown that if the same employees are properly motivated they could work at 80-90 percent of their capabilities. Training is, one of the means to achieve improvements in performance. The specific reasons which compelled the given organization for regular training of its employees and their development are a follows:-
(a) To keep pace with technological advances.
(b) To maintain the organization morale internally.
(c) Training in human such as inter-personal skills, group problem solving etc.
(d) To improve the effectiveness of the interface between organization and its employees.
Areas of Training:-
The company imparts training to its employees in the following areas-

1. Training in company policies and procedures:-
This is usually for new employees with a view to provide the requisite orientation and to establish familiarity with the company.
2. Training in particular skills:-
This is done for different departments such as marketing. accounts, production etc. The aim of this training is limited like training in sales or improving machine skills. It enables the employee to be more effective on the job.
3. Human relations training:-
This is a broad category embracing many different aspects, such as motivation, attitudes, decision-making and leadership etc. Training in this area is oriented towards development of the individual, fostering team work and ultimately increasing organizational effectiveness.
4. Training in problem-solving:-
At this company, once in a year, all divisions which handle are particular line gather together both from headquarters as well as the field offices. Participants discuss common problems and provide solutions across the table.
5. Managerial and supervisory training:-
This is a specific training which combines both techniques and concepts. If the field of training is specialized like finance or production, emphasis would be on techniques.
On the other hand, if it is a general management job, emphasis is on principles of management like planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling.

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