Wednesday, May 18, 2011

Importance and act as significant player in the process of various dimensions of Role Efficacy in an organisational set up.

‘An organisation can be defined as a system of roles, while a role itself is a system’. ‘The system of various roles which the individual carries and performs, and the system of various roles of which his/her role is a part.’ Explain with relevant examples, how the above statements assume importance and act as significant player in the process of various dimensions of Role Efficacy in an organisational set up. Give relevant details of the organisation, you are referring to for examples.

Ans. ORGANISATIONAL AND INDIVIDUAL ROLES

The efficiency and effectiveness of an organisation depends directly on how capable its personnel are and how effectively that are utilised for achieving organisational objectives. Capability of a person depends on his abiity to work and the types of training he receives. While the personal ability is evaluated through proper selection process, his training is taken care of by the organisation which involves developing appropriate skills and competence in people art different levels of the organisation. Integrated and systematic development of personnel in the organisation is referred to as human resources development.

HRD focuses on human resources as a means for organisation health. Though the ultimate objective of any activity or process in an organisation is to contribute to its well being, each process may have specific focus on a particular aspect. Management does this by focusing on personnel their competencies and their pride in the organisation. The focus of HRD on human resources is based on following assumptions:-

(i) Human Resources are the most valuable assets of any organisation
(ii) Unlike other resources human resources can be developed and increased to an unlimited extent.
(iii) A conductive organisational climate characterised by openers, trust, mutuality and collaboration is essential for developing human resources
(iv) People feel committed to their work and organisation, if the organisation develops the feelings of belongingness.
(v) People will develop this feeling if they are taken care of properly by the organisation
(vi) Peoples commitment is increased with the opportunity to discover develop and use their potential.
(vii) Everyone in the organisation is responsible for human resource development.

AS A SYSTEM OF ROLES

HRD does not view the development of an individual employee in isolation but it tries to integrate this with the total system of development, which is undertaken at four levels. –individual, dynamic, group and organisation.. At the individual level, HRD makes individual employees aware of the expectations that other persons have about their roles so that they are able to develop their skills and attitude accordingly.

At the dynamic level stronger superior-subordinate relationship is develop by developing the attitudes of mutual trust and help. At the group level focus is on developing collaborative team spirit and intergroup cooperation. At the organisation level, development of competencies involves the development of self renewal mechanism in the organisation which enables it to adapt environmental changes and to proud.

An organisation can be defined as a system of roles, in the context of present day competitive business, the quality of human capital of an organisation determines the degree of success which it can achieve since there is keen competition for human resources and not only competition for customers, the human capital can be created within the organisation and not acquired from outside. From this point of view, HRD has created its own needs in every organisation.

Fist and foremost role of HRD is to develop the competencies in people in all the levels in the organisation. Basically human resource development has two roles; to provide employees with greater opportunity to succeed and grow within the company and to strengthen management and professional teams at all levels of organisation level. Competency can be developed by increasing ability through increasing knowledge, skills and change in attitudes. Knowledge refers to the possession of information and ideas in a particular field which may be helpful in developing relationships among different variables related to that field.

Skill refers to expertise, expertness, practical ability or facility in an action of doing something. Attitude refers to the orientation of an individual in terms of settled mode of thinking or behaviour. Developing of competencies among individuals and teams consisting them is required in all types of organisations, business or non business. However in business organisations, their role is more focused because of increased competition.

HRD is also needed in an organisation to facilitate system wide changes. According to Mekinsey model , the interrelated aspects in an organisation are s8, Strategy, structure, system, staff, skills, styles and shared values. Change in any one element necessitates the change in other elements to absorb the change initiated in one element. HRD makes efforts to bring this system wide change and make all elements coherent;

Another role of HRD is to create conducive organisational climate congenial to individual growth as well as organisational growth by replacing the old and traditional assumptions about human beings with contemporary and more realistic assumptions about human beings.

Following conclusions can be drawn about people in an organisation regarding conducive organisational climate.

• People in the organisation become more competent because of the skills that are developed in them and the clarity of roles that they perform.
• Involvement in and commitment to job increase because of linkage between job performance and rewards both intrinsic and extrinsic.
• People develop better understanding to each other based on mutual trust and confidence which creates better cooperation.
• Top management becomes sensitive to human resources in terms of their utilisation and solution of problems.

ORGANISATION AND INDIVIDUAL GOALS
This is one of the areas of conflict between an organisation and its members. In order to bring congruency in there goals and consequently, organisational effectiveness, There is a need for integrating organisational and individual goals. The relationship between organisational and individual goals can be presented on following continuum.

Totally
Opposing Neutral Identical
I-------------------I--------------------I------------------I----------------I
Partially Compatible
Opposing

[Relation ship between organisational and industrial goals)


The relationship between individual and organisational goals can be identified by exploring what individuals want from the organisation and what the organisation wants from the individuals.

Human aspect is the predominant factor affecting his relations with others in the society. Man is a complicated human being with various emotions, fears, desires, ambitions, likes and dislikes. There is a constant interaction and interplay of there various dynamic human factors and it is necessary to chanelise them to work towards the common goals of the organisation.

EXAMPLE
Ashok Leyland Chennai is leading manufacturing firm in production of transports. It not only carter to the needs of the domestic requirements but also is a front runner in exporting its products to other countries. The organisation has very sound system of interpersonal relationships. Director of personnel is responsible for assisting management in the formulation of policies on personnel administration including employees training, manpower planning, industrial relations, employee’s welfare including community development and their implementation. He also does planning, direction, coordination and control of activities and personnel of the departments under him. The firm has an excellent work environment through transparent HR policies which are highly motivating and future positive self discipline. The essence of human relation philosophy of the firm is to cultivate and develop an environment where employees as individuals and as a group would wish to contribute their goals. Executives in upper and middle management recognise that the organisation involves a complicated network of relationships among people. The management’s job is to coordinate the efforts among people so that they will work towards the common goal.

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