Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Explain the meaning and concept of HRM.

Explain the meaning and concept of HRM. Discuss the functions of HR in your organization or any organization you are familiar with. Discuss the role of managers in the current scenario.

HRM has come to be recognised as an inherent part of management which is concerned with the human resources of an organization. Its objective is the maintenance of better human relations in the organization by the development, application and evaluation of policies, procedures and programmes relating to human resources to optimise their contribution towards the realisation of organizational objectives. In other words, personnel management is concerned with getting better results with the collaboration of people.
According to the Institute of Personnel Management (UK) “Personnel management is an integral but distinctive part of management, concerned with people at work and their relationships within the enterprise”. It seeks to bring together into an effective organization the men and women who staff the enterprise, enabling each to make his/her best contribution to its success, both as a member of working group and as an individual. It seeks to provide relationships within the enterprise that are conducive both to effective work and human satisfaction.
Human resource management refers to holistic approach to managing people. It has welfare, recruitment and establishment role, potential development is a composite framework of management. HRM believes that entire heurist of human management has to be treated together and not in parts.
Introduction (Apollo software):-
This is a next generation group in the information technology industry. The group has six companies out of which three are extensively helping Indian industry to adopt and appreciative the latest technology and the other three companies are US based
In India the company acts as a distributor of certain software which has created a niche for itself in the market. It was invariably the first to bring a new technology to India with regard to client/server.
A. Management functions:-
The human resources manager is a member of the management. So he must perform the basic managerial functions of planning, organising, directing and controlling in relation to his department. These functions are briefly discussed below.
1. Planning :-
To get things done through his subordinates a manager must plan a head. Planning is necessary to give the organization its goals and directions to establish best procedures to reach the goals. Effective managers recognise the substantial part of their time should be devoted to planning. For a personnel manager, planning means the determination in advance of personnel programmes that will contribute to the goals established for the enterprise.
2. Organising:-
Once the personnel manager of Apollo software has established objectives and developed plans and programmes to reach them, he must design and develop organization structure to carry out the various operations. The organization structure basically includes the following :-
• Grouping of personnel activity logically into functions or positions.
• Assignment of different groups of activities to different individuals.
• Delegation of authority according to the tasks assigned and responsibilities involved.
• Co-ordination of activities of different individuals.
3. Direction :-
The plans are to be put into effect by people. But how smoothly the plans are implemented depends on the motivation of people. The direction function of the personnel manager involves encouraging people to work willingly and effectively further goals of the enterprise. In other words the direction function is meant to give and motivate the people to accomplish the personnel programmes. The personnel manager can motivate the employees in organization through career planning, salary administration, ensuring employee morale, developing cordial relationships and provision of safety requirements and welfare of employees.
4. Controlling:-
Controlling is concerned with the regulation of activities in accordance with the plans, which in turn have been formulated on the basis of the objectives of the organization. Controlling completes the cycle and leads back to planning. It is the observation and comparison of results with the standards and correction of deviations that may occur. Controlling helps the personnel manager to evaluate and control the performance of the personnel department in terms of various operative functions. It involves performance appraisal, critical examination of personnel records and statics and personnel audit.

B. Operative functions :-
The operative functions are those tasks or duties which are specifically entrusted to the personnel department under the general supervision of personnel manager. These are concerned with employment, development, etc of the organization. The personnel department performs the following operative functions:-
i. Employment :-
The first operative function of personnel department is the employment of proper kind and numbers of persons necessary to active the objectives of the organization. This involves recruitment, selection, placement, etc of the personnel.
ii. Development:-
Training and development of personnel is following up of the employment function. It is a duty of management to train each employee properly to develop technical skills for the job for which he has been employed and also to develop him for the higher jobs in the organization.
iii. Compensation:-
This function is concerned with the determination of adequate and equitable remuneration of the employees in the organization for their contribution to the organizational goal. The personnel can be compensated both in terms of monetary as well as non-monetary rewards. Factors which must be born in mind while fixing the remuneration of personnel are their basic needs, requirements of jobs, legal provisions regarding minimum wages, capacity of the organization to pay, wage level afforded by competitors etc.
iv. Maintenance (Working condition and Welfare):-
Merely appointment and training of people is not sufficient; they must be provided with good working conditions so that they may like their work and work place and maintain their efficiency. Working conditions certainly influence the motivation and morale of the employees.
v. Motivation :-
Employees work in the organization for the satisfaction of their needs. In many of the cases, it is found that they do not contribute towards the organizational goals as much as they can. This happens because employees are not adequately motivated. The personnel managers to design a system of financial and non-financial rewards to motivate the employees.

C. Advisory functions:-
Personnel/Human resource manager has specialised education and training in managing human relations. He is expert in his area and so can give advice on matters relating to human resources of the organization. He offers his advice to:-
i. Top Management:-
Personnel manager advises the top management in formulation and evaluation of personnel programmes, policies and procedures. He also gives advice for achieving and maintaining good human relations and high employee morale.
ii. Departmental heads :-
Personnel manager offers advice to the heads of various department on matters such as manpower, planning, job analysis and design, recruitment and selection, placement, training, performance appraisal, etc.
In most of the big enterprises, personnel department is set up under the leadership of personnel manager who has specialised knowledge and skills. The personnel manager performs managerial as well as operative functions.
a. Policy Initiation:-
Policy initiation and formulation is one of the important tasks of a personnel manager. It is with a view to overcome problems of recurring nature, or to present anticipated problems in the area of human resource management that company policies are framed to communicate to the employees the basic ground rules under which the organization functions and could discrimination, inconsistency, and holism, and confusion.
b. Decision-making role :-
The personnel manager also plays in effective role in decision-making in issues related to human resources. He formulates and designs objectives, policies and programmes of human resource management.
c. Leadership Role :-
The personnel manager provides leadership and guidance to the workers and their groups. He ensures effective communication in the organization and influences the workers for extending their cooperation in the extending the organization objectives.
d. Welfare Role :-
The personnel manager acts as welfare officer in the organization. As welfare officer, he is concerned with provision of canteen, crèches, transport, hospital and other welfare services for the benefit of workers and their family members.
e. Research Role :-
The personnel manager maintains the records of the employees working in the enterprise. On the basis of records, he undertakes research in various personnel areas such as absenteeism, labour turnover etc. And suggests suitable measures for important to the top management.

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